The Low FODMAP Diet

fodmap: fermentable oligo-di-monosaccharide and polyols

FODMAPS are carbohydrates (sugars) that are found in foods. Not all carbohydrates are considered FODMAPs.

The FODMAPs in the diet are:

  • Fructose (fruits, honey, high fructose corn syrup, (HFCS), etc.)
  • Lactose (dairy)
  • Fructans (wheat, garlic, onion, inulin etc)
  • Galactans (legumes such as beans, lentils, soybeans etc)
  • Polyols (sweeteners containing isomalt, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, stone fruits such as avocado, apricots, cherries, nectarines, peaches, plums, etc)

FODMAPs are osmotic (means they pull water into the intestinal tract). May not be digested or absorbed well and could be fermented upon by bacteria in the intestinal tract when eaten in excess.

Symptoms of diarrhea, constipation, gas, bloating and/or cramping may occur in those who could be sensitive to the effects of FODMAPs. A low FODMAP diet may help reduce symptoms, which will limit foods high in fructose, lactose, Fructans, Galactans, and Polyols.

The low FODMAP diet is often used in those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The diet could be possibly used in those with similar symptoms arising from other digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease.

This diet will also limit fiber as some high fiber foods are also high in FODMAPs (fiber is a component of complex carbohydrates that the body cannot digest, found in plants based foods such as beans, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, etc).

TIPS FOR A LOW FODMAP DIET:

  • Review food lists, collect recipes and go shopping first. Follow the diet for 6 weeks.
  • Read food labels. Avoid foods made with high FODMAP fruits/vegetables, HFCS, honey, inulin wheat, soy, etc. However, a food could be low in FODMAPs if a high FODMAP is listed at the end of the ingredient list.
  • Buy gluten free grains.
  • Limiting serving sizes for low lactose dairy to small amounts and low FODMAP fruits and vegetables to ½ cup per meal.
  • Include low FODMAP rich in fiber such as oatmeal and drink plenty of water.
  • After the trial, introduce high FODMAP foods slowly to identify the “trigger” foods.

eggs, poultry, meat, & fish

low – moderate low fodmaps

beef, chicken, deli slices, eggs, fish, lamb, pork, shellfish, turkey

high fodmaps (avoid)

made with HFCS to limit (high fructose corn syrup)

dairy

low – moderate low fodmaps

low lactose or lactose free dairy (any), Cream cheese, half & half, hard cheese (Cheddar, Colby, parmesan, Swiss, etc.) soft cheeses, (brie, feta, mozzarella, etc.), sherbet, yogurt (greek), whipped cream

high fodmaps (avoid)

high lactose dairy, buttermilk, chocolate, creamy/cheesy sauces, custard, ice cream, sour cream, milk (cow’s, condensed, evaporated, goat’s sheep’s), soft cheese (cottage, ricotta, etc.)

meat, no dairy alternatives

low – moderate low fodmaps

milk alternatives (almond, coconut, rice, soy (from soy protein), nuts (walnut, pecan macadamia, peanut, pine) nut butters, tempeh, tofu

high fodmaps (avoid)

cashews, beans, black eyed peas, bulgur, lentils, miso, pistachios, soybeans, soy milk (from soy-beans)

grains

low – moderate low fodmaps

Made w/gluten free/spelt grains (corn, oats, potato, quinoa, rice, tapioca, etc. crackers, noodles, pancakes, pastas, rice rice bran, quinoa, popcorn, oatmeal, oat bran, pretzels, tortillas, waffles

high fodmaps (avoid)

made with wheat/barley/rye when it’s the major ingredient, gluten free/spelt grains made with foods to limit, chicory root, inulin

fruits

low – moderate low fodmaps

bananas, blueberries, cantaloupe, cranberries, grapes, honeydew, kiwi, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, passion fruit, pineapple, raspberries, rhubarb, strawberries, tangerine

high fodmaps (avoid)

apples, applesauce, apricots, blackberries, boysenberries, canned fruit, dates, dried fruits, figs, guava, mango, nectarines, papaya, peaches, runes, plums, persimmon, pears, watermelon

vegetables

low – moderate low fodmaps

alfalfa/bean sprouts, bamboo shoots, bell peppers, bok choy, carrots, cabbage, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, kale, lettuce, parsnips, pumpkin, potatoes, radishes, rutabaga, seaweed (nori), spinach, squash, tomatoes, turnips, water, chestnuts, zucchini

high fodmaps (avoid)

artichokes, cauliflower, mushrooms, sugar snap peas

desserts

low – moderate low fodmaps

made with foods allowed

high fodmaps (avoid)

made with HFCS/foods to limit

beverages

low – moderate low fodmaps

fruit and vegetable juices/smoothies made with foods allowed ½ cup at a time, coffee, tea

high fodmaps (avoid)

made with HFCS/foods to limit, fortified wines (sherry, port)

seasonings/condiments

low – moderate low fodmaps

butter, cooking oils, garlic/onion infused oil, maple syrup, sugar, soy sauce, vinegar, margarine, mayonnaise made without HFCS salt, pepper, most spices with herbs

high fodmaps (avoid)

agave, molasses, ketchup, tomato, artificial sweeteners, (isomalt, mannitol sorbitol, xylitol), made with HFCS, hummus, honey, garlic, garlic salt

low fodmap meals and snack ideas

  • Gluten free waffle with walnuts, blueberries, maple syrup w/o HFCS
  • Scrambled eggs with spinach, bell peppers and cheddar cheese
  • Oatmeal topped with sliced banana, almonds and brown sugar
  • Fruit smoothes blended with lactose free vanilla yogurt and strawberries (1/2 cup)
  • Rice pasta with chicken, tomatoes, spinach topped with pesto sauce
  • Chicken salad mixed with lettuce, bell peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, balsamic vinegar salad dressing w/out HFSC
  • Turkey wrap with gluten free tortilla, sliced turkey, lettuce, tomato, slice of cheddar cheese, mayonnaise, mustard
  • Ham and Swiss cheese sandwich on gluten free bread with mayo and mustard
  • Quesadilla with corn or gluten free tortilla and cheddar cheese
  • Beef and vegetable stew (made with homemade broth, beef, allowed vegetables)